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Read online The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief.pdf PDF, EPUB, MOBI, TXT, DOC The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief ABSTRACT from a href http www plosone org article info Adoi F Fjournal pone top rel nofollow the full study a .

Background .

While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition and others have looked specifically at religious belief However no research has compared these two states of mind directly Methodology Principal Findings .

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions For both groups and in both categories of stimuli belief judgments of true vs judgments of false was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex an area important for self representation emotional associations reward and goal driven behavior This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God the Virgin Birth etc or statements about ordinary facts A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion self representation and cognitive conflict while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks .

Conclusions Significance .

While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal parietal and medial temporal lobes the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content independent Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and as such constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion However these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the world .

Author Contributions .

Conceived and designed the experiments Sam Harris Jonas T Kaplan Marco Iacoboni Mark S Cohen Performed the experiments Jonas T Kaplan Analyzed the data Sam Harris Jonas T Kaplan Marco Iacoboni Mark S Cohen Contributed reagents materials analysis tools Marco Iacoboni Mark S Cohen Wrote the paper Sam Harris Jonas T Kaplan Performed all subject recruitment telephone screenings and psychometric assessments prior to scanning Ashley Curiel Supervised our psychological assessment procedures and consulted on subject exclusions Susan Y Bookheimer Gave extensive notes on the manuscript Mark S Cohen Marco Iacoboni by Sam Harris, Jonas T. Kaplan

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The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief
Title:The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief
Format Type:eBook PDF / e-Pub
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Number of Pages:9
Category:religion, science, neuroscience, non-fiction, philosophy, psychology, atheism, brain
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Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion, The Neural Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief, The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values, Lying, The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, An Atheist Manifesto, Functional Neuroimaging of Belief, Disbelief, and Uncertainty, Free Will, Letter to a Christian Nation, Islam and the Future of Tolerance: A Dialogue
In this deeply informed and absorbing exchange Sam Harris and Maajid Nawaz present an antidote to the polarizing rhetoric and obscurantism that have become defining features of our time honest dialogue A renowned critic of religion Harris finds the doctrines of Islam dangerous and irredeemable No the Muslim anti extremist Nawaz argues Islam is amenable to reform and can find its place in a secular world Rather than devolve into bigotry or caricature their exchange presents an inspiring example of courteous attention sharp edged wisdom and finally hope br br A former member of the Islamist revolutionary group Hizb ut Tahrir author of Radical and cofounder of the anti extremist think tank Quilliam Nawaz speaks with unique authority about the possibility of Islamic reform Since the publication of The End of Faith Harris has critiqued religion and asserted that reason and science are the true guardians of our deepest human values Islam and the Future of Tolerance is an exemplar of how the fog can lift when hyperbole and posturing are put aside in pursuit of understanding br br Guided by a mutual commitment to the belief that no idea is above scrutiny and no people beneath dignity Harris and Nawaz challenge each other and consequently their readers to defend incompatible positions define and explore their facts and discover common ground Published with the explicit hope to inspire many more such conversations this dialogue extends an invitation to a world riven by violence to take up the task of engagement, For the millions of Americans who want spirituality without religion Sam Harris s new book is a guide to meditation as a rational spiritual practice informed by neuroscience and psychology br br From multiple New York Times bestselling author neuroscientist and new atheist Sam Harris Waking Up is for the percent of Americans who follow no religion but who suspect that Jesus Buddha Lao Tzu Rumi and the other saints and sages of history could not have all been epileptics schizophrenics or frauds Throughout the book Harris argues that there are important truths to be found in the experiences of such contemplatives and therefore that there is more to understanding reality than science and secular culture generally allow br br Waking Up is part seeker s memoir and part exploration of the scientific underpinnings of spirituality No other book marries contemplative wisdom and modern science in this way and no author other than Sam Harris a scientist philosopher and famous skeptic could write it, In i The End of Faith i Sam Harris delivers a startling analysis of the clash between reason and religion in the modern world He offers a vivid historical tour of our willingness to suspend reason in favor of religious beliefs even when these beliefs inspire the worst human atrocities While warning against the encroachment of organized religion into world politics Harris draws on insights from neuroscience philosophy and Eastern mysticism to deliver a call for a truly modern foundation for ethics and spirituality that is both secular and humanistic br br Winner of the PEN Martha Albrand Award for Nonfiction, As it was in Anna Karenina Madame Bovary and Othello so it is in life Most forms of private vice and public evil are kindled and sustained by lies Acts of adultery and other personal betrayals financial fraud government corruption even murder and genocide generally require an additional moral defect a willingness to lie br br In Lying bestselling author and neuroscientist Sam Harris argues that we can radically simplify our lives and improve society by merely telling the truth in situations where others often lie He focuses on white lies those lies we tell for the purpose of sparing people discomfort for these are the lies that most often tempt us And they tend to be the only lies that good people tell while imagining that they are being good in the process